Vol. 3, No. 4, 2015

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An analysis of the latitudinal data of Eratosthenes and Hipparchus

Christian Marx

Vol. 3 (2015), No. 4, 309–339

The extant data on latitudes ascribed to Eratosthenes and Hipparchus have been compiled and tested for consistency using adjustment theory. For the detected inconsistencies new explanations are given concerning the origin of the data. Several inconsistent data can be ascribed to Strabo. Differences in Hipparchus’ data can often be explained by the different types and precision of the data. Gross errors in Eratosthenes’ data are explained by their origin in lengths of sea routes. From Eratosthenes’ data concerning Thule a numerical value for Eratosthenes’ obliquity of the ecliptic is deduced.

Eratosthenes, Hipparchus, Strabo, latitudes, obliquity of the ecliptic, length of the longest day, prime meridian, Thule
Mathematical Subject Classification 2010
Primary: 01A20
Received: 25 January 2014
Revised: 15 December 2014
Accepted: 30 January 2015
Published: 10 November 2015

Communicated by Lucio Russo
Christian Marx
Gropiusstraße 6
D-13357 Berlin