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Relative phantom maps

Kouyemon Iriye, Daisuke Kishimoto and Takahiro Matsushita

Algebraic & Geometric Topology 19 (2019) 341–362

The de Bruijn–Erdős theorem states that the chromatic number of an infinite graph equals the maximum of the chromatic numbers of its finite subgraphs. Such determination by finite subobjects appears in the definition of a phantom map, which is classical in algebraic topology. The topological method in combinatorics connects these two, which leads us to define the relative version of a phantom map: a map f : X Y is called a relative phantom map to a map φ: B Y if the restriction of f to any finite subcomplex of X lifts to B through φ, up to homotopy. There are two kinds of maps which are obviously relative phantom maps: (1) the composite of a map X B with φ; (2) a usual phantom map X Y . A relative phantom map of type (1) is called trivial, and a relative phantom map out of a suspension which is a sum of (1) and (2) is called relatively trivial. We study the (relative) triviality of relative phantom maps and, in particular, we give rational homology conditions for the (relative) triviality.

relative phantom maps, de Bruijn–Erdos theorem, box complexes, relative triviality
Mathematical Subject Classification 2010
Primary: 55P99
Received: 17 January 2018
Revised: 4 September 2018
Accepted: 5 September 2018
Published: 6 February 2019
Kouyemon Iriye
Department of Mathematical Sciences
Osaka Prefecture University
Daisuke Kishimoto
Department of Mathematics
Kyoto University
Takahiro Matsushita
Department of Mathematical Sciences
University of the Ryukyus