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Constructions stemming from nonseparating planar graphs and their Colin de Verdière invariant

Andrei Pavelescu and Elena Pavelescu

Algebraic & Geometric Topology 24 (2024) 555–568

A planar graph G is said to be nonseparating if there exists an embedding of G in 2 such that, for any cycle 𝒞 G, all vertices of G 𝒞 are within the same connected component of 2 𝒞. Dehkordi and Farr classified the nonseparating planar graphs as either outerplanar graphs, subgraphs of wheel graphs, or subgraphs of elongated triangular prisms. We use maximal nonseparating planar graphs to construct examples of maximal linkless graphs and maximal knotless graphs. We show that, for a maximal nonseparating planar graph G with n 7 vertices, the complement cG is (n7)–apex. This implies that the Colin de Verdière invariant of the complement cG satisfies μ(cG) n 4. We show this to be an equality. As a consequence, the conjecture of Kotlov, Lovász and Vempala that, for a simple graph G, μ(G) + μ(cG) n 2 is true for 2–apex graphs G for which G {u,v} is planar nonseparating. It also follows that complements of nonseparating planar graphs of order at least nine are intrinsically linked. We prove that the complements of nonseparating planar graphs G of order at least ten are intrinsically knotted.

nonseparating planar graph, Colin de Verdière invariant, intrinsically linked graph, intrinsically knotted graph
Mathematical Subject Classification
Primary: 57M15
Secondary: 05C10
Received: 12 February 2022
Revised: 8 August 2022
Accepted: 18 October 2022
Published: 18 March 2024
Andrei Pavelescu
Department of Mathematics and Statistics
University of South Alabama
Mobile, AL
United States
Elena Pavelescu
Department of Mathematics and Statistics
University of South Alabama
Mobile, AL
United States

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