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Nonexistence of the box dimension for dynamically invariant sets

Natalia Jurga

Vol. 16 (2023), No. 10, 2385–2399

One of the key challenges in the dimension theory of smooth dynamical systems lies in establishing whether or not the Hausdorff, lower and upper box dimensions coincide for invariant sets. For sets invariant under conformal dynamics, these three dimensions always coincide. On the other hand, considerable attention has been given to examples of sets invariant under nonconformal dynamics whose Hausdorff and box dimensions do not coincide. These constructions exploit the fact that the Hausdorff and box dimensions quantify size in fundamentally different ways, the former in terms of covers by sets of varying diameters and the latter in terms of covers by sets of fixed diameters. In this article we construct the first example of a dynamically invariant set with distinct lower and upper box dimensions. Heuristically, this says that if size is quantified in terms of covers by sets of equal diameters, a dynamically invariant set can appear bigger when viewed at certain resolutions than at others.

dimension theory, box dimension, dynamical systems, invariant set
Mathematical Subject Classification
Primary: 28A80, 37C45
Secondary: 37D20
Received: 29 June 2021
Revised: 23 March 2022
Accepted: 29 April 2022
Published: 11 December 2023
Natalia Jurga
School of Mathematics and Statistics
University of St. Andrews
St. Andrews
United Kingdom

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