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Latent free equivalent mDAGs

Robin J. Evans

Vol. 14 (2023), No. 1, 3–16

We show that the marginal model for a discrete directed acyclic graph (DAG) with hidden variables is distributionally equivalent to another fully observable DAG model if and only if it does not induce any nontrivial inequality constraints.

Bayesian networks, directed acyclic graphs, distributional equivalence, latent variables, mixed graphs
Mathematical Subject Classification
Primary: 62H22
Received: 14 September 2022
Revised: 18 May 2023
Accepted: 2 June 2023
Published: 28 November 2023
Robin J. Evans
Department of Statistics
University of Oxford
United Kingdom