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Modeling immunodominance in the B-cell response to viral infection

Nikolay M. Bessonov, Gennady A. Bocharov, Daria Neverova and Vitaly Volpert

Vol. 11 (2023), No. 2, 175–202
DOI: 10.2140/memocs.2023.11.175
Abstract

Adaptive immune response can be accompanied by immunodominance which manifests itself by competition of different clones of antigen-specific lymphocytes and corresponding antibodies. This competition can lead to hierarchy of antibodies and to competitive exclusion of some of them. In this work we develop a new model of immunodominance based on partial integrodifferential equations and take into account random mutations of B-cell receptors, competition of cell clones for resources, and epitope-specific virus neutralization. Dynamics of immune response is studied, and it is shown that immunodominance can weaken the immune response since the dominating antibodies are not necessarily most efficient for virus neutralization, as observed in COVID-19 patients.

Keywords
viral infection, adaptive immune response, antibodies, immunodominance, modeling and simulations
Mathematical Subject Classification
Primary: 35K57, 92C30
Milestones
Received: 29 May 2022
Revised: 8 November 2022
Accepted: 15 December 2022
Published: 12 November 2023

Communicated by Francesco dell'Isola
Authors
Nikolay M. Bessonov
Institute of Problems of Mechanical Engineering
Russian Academy of Sciences
Saint Petersburg
Russia
Gennady A. Bocharov
Marchuk Institute of Numerical Mathematics
Russian Academy of Sciences
Moscow
Russia
Moscow Center for Fundamental and Applied Mathematics at INM RAS
Moscow
Russia
Institute of Computer Science and Mathematical Modelling
Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University
Moscow
Russia
Daria Neverova
Peoples Friendship University of Russia (RUDN University)
Moscow
Russia
Vitaly Volpert
Institut Camille Jordan
UMR 5208 CNRS
University Lyon 1
Villeurbanne
France
Peoples Friendship University of Russia (RUDN University)
Moscow
Russia