Vol. 1, No. 1, 2022

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Kim-independence in positive logic

Jan Dobrowolski and Mark Kamsma

Vol. 1 (2022), No. 1, 55–113
DOI: 10.2140/mt.2022.1.55

An important dividing line in the class of unstable theories is being NSOP 1, which is more general than being simple. In NSOP 1 theories forking independence may not be as well behaved as in stable or simple theories, so it is replaced by another independence notion, called Kim-independence. We generalise Kim-independence over models in NSOP 1 theories to positive logic — a proper generalisation of full first-order logic where negation is not built in, but can be added as desired. For example, an important application is that we can add hyperimaginary sorts to a positive theory to get another positive theory, preserving NSOP 1 and various other properties. We prove that, in a thick positive NSOP 1 theory, Kim-independence over existentially closed models has all the nice properties that it is known to have in an NSOP 1 theory in full first-order logic. We also provide a Kim–Pillay style theorem, characterising which thick positive theories are NSOP 1 by the existence of a certain independence relation. Furthermore, this independence relation must then be the same as Kim-independence. Thickness is the mild assumption that being an indiscernible sequence is type-definable.

In full first-order logic Kim-independence is defined in terms of Morley sequences in global invariant types. These may not exist in thick positive theories. We solve this by working with Morley sequences in global Lascar-invariant types, which do exist in thick positive theories. We also simplify certain tree constructions that were used in the study of Kim-independence in full first-order logic. In particular, we only work with trees of finite height.

Kim-independence, Kim-dividing, positive logic, $\mathrm{NSOP}_1$ theory
Mathematical Subject Classification
Primary: 03C10, 03C45
Received: 11 October 2021
Revised: 21 April 2022
Accepted: 18 May 2022
Published: 24 June 2022
Jan Dobrowolski
Institute for Mathematical Logic and Basic Research
University of Münster
Instytut Matematyczny
Uniwersytetu Wrocławskiego
Department of Mathematics
University of Manchester
United Kingdom
Mark Kamsma
School of Mathematics
University of East Anglia
United Kingdom