Vol. 258, No. 1, 2012

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Semisimple tunnels

Sangbum Cho and Darryl McCullough

Vol. 258 (2012), No. 1, 51–89
Abstract

A knot in S3 in genus-1 1-bridge position (called a (1,1)-position) can be described by an element of the braid group of two points in the torus. Our main results tell how to translate between a braid group element and the sequence of slope invariants of the upper and lower tunnels of the (1,1)-position. After using them to verify previous calculations of the slope invariants for all tunnels of 2-bridge knots and (1,1)-tunnels of torus knots, we obtain characterizations of the slope sequences of tunnels of 2-bridge knots, and of a class of tunnels we call toroidal. The main results lead to a general algorithm to calculate the slope invariants of the upper and lower tunnels from a braid description. The algorithm has been implemented as software, and we give some sample computations.

A knot in S3 in genus-1 1-bridge position (called a (1,1)-position) can be described by an element of the braid group of two points in the torus. Our main results tell how to translate between a braid group element and the sequence of slope invariants of the upper and lower tunnels of the (1,1)-position. After using them to verify previous calculations of the slope invariants for all tunnels of 2-bridge knots and (1,1)-tunnels of torus knots, we obtain characterizations of the slope sequences of tunnels of 2-bridge knots, and of a class of tunnels we call toroidal. The main results lead to a general algorithm to calculate the slope invariants of the upper and lower tunnels from a braid description. The algorithm has been implemented as software, and we give some sample computations.

A knot in S3 in genus-1 1-bridge position (called a (1,1)-position) can be described by an element of the braid group of two points in the torus. Our main results tell how to translate between a braid group element and the sequence of slope invariants of the upper and lower tunnels of the (1,1)-position. After using them to verify previous calculations of the slope invariants for all tunnels of 2-bridge knots and (1,1)-tunnels of torus knots, we obtain characterizations of the slope sequences of tunnels of 2-bridge knots, and of a class of tunnels we call toroidal. The main results lead to a general algorithm to calculate the slope invariants of the upper and lower tunnels from a braid description. The algorithm has been implemented as software, and we give some sample computations.

A knot in S3 in genus-1 1-bridge position (called a (1,1)-position) can be described by an element of the braid group of two points in the torus. Our main results tell how to translate between a braid group element and the sequence of slope invariants of the upper and lower tunnels of the (1,1)-position. After using them to verify previous calculations of the slope invariants for all tunnels of 2-bridge knots and (1,1)-tunnels of torus knots, we obtain characterizations of the slope sequences of tunnels of 2-bridge knots, and of a class of tunnels we call toroidal. The main results lead to a general algorithm to calculate the slope invariants of the upper and lower tunnels from a braid description. The algorithm has been implemented as software, and we give some sample computations.

A knot in S3 in genus-1 1-bridge position (called a (1,1)-position) can be described by an element of the braid group of two points in the torus. Our main results tell how to translate between a braid group element and the sequence of slope invariants of the upper and lower tunnels of the (1,1)-position. After using them to verify previous calculations of the slope invariants for all tunnels of 2-bridge knots and (1,1)-tunnels of torus knots, we obtain characterizations of the slope sequences of tunnels of 2-bridge knots, and of a class of tunnels we call toroidal. The main results lead to a general algorithm to calculate the slope invariants of the upper and lower tunnels from a braid description. The algorithm has been implemented as software, and we give some sample computations.

A knot in S3 in genus-1 1-bridge position (called a (1,1)-position) can be described by an element of the braid group of two points in the torus. Our main results tell how to translate between a braid group element and the sequence of slope invariants of the upper and lower tunnels of the (1,1)-position. After using them to verify previous calculations of the slope invariants for all tunnels of 2-bridge knots and (1,1)-tunnels of torus knots, we obtain characterizations of the slope sequences of tunnels of 2-bridge knots, and of a class of tunnels we call toroidal. The main results lead to a general algorithm to calculate the slope invariants of the upper and lower tunnels from a braid description. The algorithm has been implemented as software, and we give some sample computations.

Keywords
knot, tunnel, $(1,1)$, braid, torus, slope, invariant, cabling, semisimple, 2-bridge, toroidal, algorithm
Mathematical Subject Classification 2010
Primary: 57M25
Supplementary material

Zip file of Python code for algorithms in the article

Milestones
Received: 28 July 2011
Accepted: 2 April 2012
Published: 21 July 2012
Authors
Sangbum Cho
Department of Mathematics Education
Hanyang University
Seoul 133-791
South Korea
Darryl McCullough
Department of Mathematics
University of Oklahoma
Norman, OK 73019-3103
United States
www.math.ou.edu/~dmccullough/