Vol. 315, No. 2, 2021

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Tunnel-number-one knot exteriors in $S^3$ disjoint from proper power curves

Sungmo Kang

Vol. 315 (2021), No. 2, 369–418
DOI: 10.2140/pjm.2021.315.369

As one of the background papers of the classification project of hyperbolic primitive/Seifert (or P/SF) knots in S3 whose complete list is given in [Berge and Kang 2020], this paper classifies pairs of two disjoint nonseparating simple closed curves R and β lying in the boundary of a genus two handlebody H such that β is a proper power curve and a 2-handle addition H[R] along R embeds in S3 so that H[R] is the exterior of a tunnel-number-one knot. As a consequence, if R is a nonseparating simple closed curve on the boundary of a genus two handlebody such that H[R] embeds in S3, then there exists a proper power curve disjoint from R if and only if H[R] is the exterior of the unknot, a torus knot, or a tunnel-number-one cable of a torus knot.

The results of this paper will be mainly used in proving the hyperbolicity of P/SF knots and in classifying P/SF knots in once-punctured tori in S3, which is one of the types of P/SF knots in [Berge and Kang 2020]. Together with these results, the preliminary of this paper which consists of three parts: the three diagrams which are Heegaard diagrams, R-R diagrams, and hybrid diagrams, the “culling lemma”, and locating waves into an R-R diagrams, will also be used in the classification of hyperbolic primitive/Seifert knots in S3.

tunnel-number-one knots, primitive/Seifert knots, proper power curves, 2-handle additions, Heegaard and R-R diagrams
Mathematical Subject Classification
Primary: 57K10
Received: 24 May 2020
Revised: 23 September 2021
Accepted: 17 October 2021
Published: 19 January 2022
Sungmo Kang
Department of Mathematics Education
Chonnam National University
Gwangju 61186
South Korea